What is the Index?

The European Extreme Events Climatic Index enables institutions and private entities to analyse, quantify and monitor the frequency and severity of extreme meteorological events in order to offer them greater knowledge and new opportunities for the optimum management of the impact of these events.


In recent years, the incidence of extreme meteorological events has become a crucial topic, around which considerable social, economic and political dynamics are developing. As a result of the ongoing global warming, in many areas, the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events are expected to increase considerably, with a high impact on the way we live.


E3CI provides a tool for evaluating the frequency and severity of extreme meteorological events by using the ERA5 atmospheric re-analysis available in the Data Store of the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S).
The data produced can be used to understand trends and estimate the climatic changes in Italy and Europe, providing communities, institutions and businesses with useful information. Using well consolidated calculation approaches, the index returns a monthly snapshot of what has happened in Europe, thereby demonstrating the entity of the phenomena and the most affected areas, as well as an overview of the long-term trends.
It is a simple and immediate tool allowing a full understanding of the environmental and socioeconomic effects of extreme meteorological events that helps us to take well-informed decisions in order to protect our planet, our local areas and the generations to come.

How it works

Based on ERA5 atmospheric re-analysis data, which enable the estimation of the main atmospheric variables since 1950, on a global scale and with a high degree of temporal and spatial detail, the Index is able to indicate the changes,, calculate the trends and predict the incidence of 7 specific dynamics associated with extreme meteorological events.

For each of these dynamics, the Index returns information on a monthly scale in terms of deviation from the historical mean, information that can be used to carry out a back-analysis on specific areas, in order to pinpoint those subject to the greatest climatic stress.

Temperature massime estreme
Minimum temperatures
Extreme precipitation
Extreme wind

How is Italy faring?

In the paper “How is Italy faring?”, starting from the data of the European Extreme Events Climate Index, the extraordinary meteorological events that characterized Italy in the hydrological year from September 2022 to August 2023 are analyzed, quantified, and monitored. The analysis not only allows us to better understand the magnitude of certain phenomena but also to identify trends and provide scientific and visual support to what is happening at the climatic level.